The term arthroscopy basically means to look into the joint. (Arthro means joint, and scopy means look.) So the common phrase scope the joint means to insert an arthroscope into the joint and have a look.
Over the past several years, the development of very small video cameras and specialized instruments have allowed surgeons to do more than simply take a look into the joint. The arthroscope is now used more and more for actual surgical procedures. Involves making smaller incisions into the joint.
As surgeons have become familiar with this type of surgery, more surgical procedures that were once done with large incisions are now being done arthroscopically.

Cortisone for Arthritis
Doctors recommend injections of corticosteroids (also commonly known as cortisone) for many arthritis patients.
Cortisone is a powerful anti-inflammatory medication that can reduce joint inflammation.
Because the medication is injected directly into the joint, the effects of the medication are concentrated on the painful joint. The injected cortisone can bring the inflammation in the joint under better control and decrease the swelling and pain.
It is actually safe and fast. It involves little or no pain.
And therapeutic injections have important benefits. They deliver the medicine to the exact spot that needs it. They also allow you to use lower and fewer doses of oral steroids, which are highly toxic.
Most doctors give only three injections per year in large, weight-bearing joints. This includes joints in your knee and hip. However, patients with arthritis pain that cannot be controlled in other ways can get injections more often.

Diabetic Foot
Foot problems are a big risk in diabetics. Like all diabetic people, you should monitor your feet. If you don't, the consequences can be severe, including amputation, or worse. Minor injuries become major emergencies before you know it. With a diabetic foot, a wound as small as a blister from wearing a shoe that's too tight can cause a lot of damage.

Gout is a disease that involves the build-up of uric acid in the body.
About 95 percent of gout patients are men.
Most men are over 50 when gout first appears.
Women generally don't develop gout until after menopause. But some people develop gout at a young age.
Gout is common in NZ moreso in male Islanders.

Bone remodelling consists of two distinct stages: bone resorption and bone formation.
During resorption, special cells on the bone's surface dissolve bone tissue and create small cavities. During formation, other cells fill the cavities with new bone tissue.
Usually, bone resorption and bone formation are linked so that they occur in close sequence and remain balanced. An imbalance in the bone remodelling cycle causes bone loss that eventually leads to osteoporosis
Osteoporosis make bone weak and such bones predispose to a fracture.
Osteoporosis is more common in elderly people and in post-menopausal.
DEXA scan is the gold standard in diagnosing Osteoporosis Commonly used drug is Biphosphonaates.

Forearm Fractures
Children love to run, hop, skip, jump and tumble. But if they fall onto an outstretched arm, they could break one or both of the bones in the lower arm. Forearm fractures account for 40 to 50 percent of all childhood fractures. Fractures can occur near the wrist at the farthest (distal) end of the bone, in the middle of the forearm, or near the elbow at the top (proximal) end of the bone. About three out of four forearm fractures in children involve the wrist-end of the radius. A child's bones begin to heal much more quickly than an adult's bones. If you suspect a fracture, you should obtain prompt medical attention for the child so that the bones can be set for proper healing.

Cast Care Instructions
Unless you have a waterproof cast, you should keep your cast dry.
Getting it wet, the skin underneath stays damp and can become moldy and smelly.
Also, don't swim with your cast
To keep your cast dry in the shower, you can enclose it in a plastic garbage bag. Tape the open end of the bag so that water can't get in.
Casts don't completely harden for about two days. Be especially careful with your cast during this time. Don't rest the full weight of the cast on a hard surface during these first two days. Doing so can dent the cast and can cause pressure sores on the skin under the cast.
Keep the casted or splinted limb elevated (propped up) above the level of your heart when you're able to do so. This will reduce the swelling and help to keep the cast from becoming too tight.
Avoid too much activity and situations that may re-injure you or damage your cast. Remember your cast is there to help your arm or leg heal. It can't do its job without your cooperation.

Chronic, or long-term, tendon problems are common. Tendon problems are especially common in people who play certain types of sports. Tendon problems account for almost 30 percent of all running injuries and 40 percent of all tennis injuries.

Stress fracture
A stress fracture is an overuse injury . It occurs when the fatigued muscles, which are unable to absorb any added stress by the bone

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