Back Pain
More than 31 million visits were made to physician offices in 2003 because of back problems Eight out of 10 people will experience back pain at some point in their lives. Low back pain is one of the most frequent problems treated by orthopaedic surgeons. Treatment is multifactorial.

Herneated Disc
A"slipped" or "ruptured" disk in their neck or lower back. What they're actually describing is a herniated disk, a common source of neck, or lower back and arm or leg pain. Disks are soft, rubbery pads found between the hard bones (vertebrae) that make up the spinal column. In the middle of the spinal column is the spinal canal-a hollow space that contains the spinal cord and other nerve roots.Disks act as shock absorbers. Disks in the lumbar spine (low back) are composed of a thick outer ring of cartilage (annulus) and an inner gel-like substance (nucleus). In the cervical spine (neck), the disks are similar but smaller in size. A helpful comparison is a jelly donut: its thick outer portion represents the annulus, while the jelly is similar to the nucleus. A disk herniates or ruptures when part of the center nucleus pushes through the outer edge of the disk. And this jelly pushes backwards toward the spinal canal. This puts pressure on the nerves. Spinal nerves are very sensitive to even slight amounts of pressure. Pain, numbness or weakness may occur in one or both legs.

Cauda Equina Syndrome
Low back pain is common and usually goes away without surgery. But a rare disorder affecting the bundle of nerve roots (cauda equina) at the lower (lumbar) end of the spinal cord is a surgical emergency. Cauda equina syndrome (CES) occurs when the nerve roots are compressed and paralyzed, cutting off sensation and movement. Nerve roots that control the function of the bladder and bowel are especially vulnerable to damage. It is a surgical emergency. CES may cause permanent paralysis, impaired bladder and/or bowel control, loss of sexual sensation and other problems. Even if the problem gets treatment right away, you may not recover complete function.


Cervical spondylosis 
Cervical spondylosis can be thought of as "grey hair" of the spine.As described above, the term refers to osteophytes or bony overgrowths, that protrude from the vertebral bodies as well as narrowing occurring across the disc spaces as the disc degenerates. They can compress the spinal cord or a spinal nerve root. In the vast majority of these osteophytes do not cause any nerve problems. The osteophytes are a result of degeneration of the spine.

Collapse of the vertebra in the spine
A compression fracture occurs when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squished, or compressed, to a smaller height. This injury tends to happen in two groups of people.
First, are patients who are involved in traumatic accidents. When a load placed on the vertebrae exceeds its stability, it may collapse. This is commonly seen after a fall.
The second, and much more common, group of patients are those with osteoporosis. Patients with osteoporosis who sustain multiple compression fractures may begin to notice a curving of the spine, like a hunchback, called a kyphotic deformity.

The term "kyphosis" is usually applied to the curve that results in an exaggerated "round-back." A variety of disorders may be responsible for this condition. X-rays of the spine will show if there are any bony abnormalities. X-rays will also let the doctor measure the degree of the kyphotic curve. Any kyphotic curve that is more than 50 degrees is considered abnormal.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
The lumbar spine (lower back) provides a foundation to carry the weight of the upper body. It also houses the nerves that control the lower body. With aging, the discs in the front of the spine become dehydrated. The joints in the back of the spine become overgrown due to arthritis. These degenerative changes are the result of the normal "wear-and-tear" associated with aging. Over time these changes can also lead to narrowing, or stenosis, of the spinal canal Narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal pinches the nerves that control muscle power and sensation in the legs. Sometimes the pinched nerves become inflamed and cause pain in the buttocks and/or legs.

Read more
Thoracolumbar Fracture